Journal of Parapsychology

Journal of Parapsychology

Comparison of outcomes with nonintentional and intentional precognition tasks

Authors: Luke D., Zychowicz K. Journal: Journal of Parapsychology Publication date: 2014 Keywords: precognition, PMIR, intention, decline effect

Stanford’s psi-mediated instrumental response (PMIR) model proposes that psi is an evolutionarily adaptive function that largely works in the service of the organism but which operates at an almost completely unconscious level. A series of successful experiments conducted by Luke and associates have explored the PMIR model with an automated nonintentional precognition task with postexperimental outcome-contingent tasks that vary in pleasantness commensurate with psi task success. Until now this test paradigm explored only nonintentional tasks so this study compares nonintentional with intentional psi task conditions to explore the unconscious psi proposition of the PMIR model. A sample of 40 psychology student participants completed 10 trials each of the automated precognition task, with 20 participants randomly allocated to the nonintentional condition and 20 to the intentional condition in an independent groups design. Contrary to previous fndings psi scoring overall was below mean chance expectation (MCE), although nonsignifcant. In line with predictions based on the PMIR model, however, task participants in the nonintentional condition scored above MCE and scored higher than those in the intentional condition, though these differences were not signifcant. Measures of belief in psi, openness to experience, and emotional creativity were found not to correlate with psi scores. The fndings are discussed in light of previous studies with suggestions for future research.

Journal of Parapsychology

A technique for the experimental study of telepathy and other alleged clairvoyant processes; a report on the work done in 1916-17 at the Harvard psychological laboratory, under the gift of Mrs. John Wallace Riddle and the Hodgson Fund

Authors: Troland L.T. Journal: Journal of Parapsychology Publication date: 1976 Keywords: history; telepathy; clairvoyance; parapsychology

The editors have thought it worth while to reprint the Troland article since, so far as is known, Troland designed the first ESP test machine, a relatively elaborate device which, however, received very limited use. Also, Troland was the first to recognize a negative deviation of scoring rate from mean chance expectancy as acceptable evidence of psi ability. Criteria of significance were not well standardized in his day. The special value of this paper is that it is a document which reflects the state of experimental psychology at the time when a problem from parapsychology was first admitted to the experimental psychology laboratory.

Journal of Parapsychology

Experimenter effects in parapsychological research

Authors: Kennedy J.E., Taddonio J.L. Journal: Journal of Parapsychology Publication date: 1976 Keywords: mood; parapsychology; psychokinesis; theoretical study

This paper outlines the types of experimenter effects that occur in parapsychological research. A distinction is drawn between those effects that seem to be mediated by psychological variables and those that result from extrasensory processes. The term ‘psi experimenter effect’ is introduced to refer to unintentional psi which affects experimental outcomes in ways that are directly related to the experimenter’s needs, wishes, expectancies, or moods. Several channels for the operation of psi experimenter effects are discussed, as well as numerous studies which support their existence. A review of the literature suggests that experimenter PK can influence laboratory investigations of psychokinesis and precognition. In addition, psi experimenter effects are indicated in studies showing variations in the subjects’ reactions to different experimenters and in studies involving unintentional psi tasks.

Journal of Parapsychology

Hypnotic maximization of ESP motivation

Authors: Casler L. Journal: Journal of Parapsychology Publication date: 1976 Keywords: clinical trial; controlled study; extrasensory perception; human; hypnosis; major clinical study; motivation; randomized controlled trial

Three methods of hypnotic manipulation of motivation were compared for their effects on ESP success. Each method was administered to a different group of 10 randomly assigned subjects. The members of Group I received hypnotic suggestions inducing them to believe that ESP existed, that they (the subjects) had ESP, and that they wanted to and would use their ESP to obtain a high level of success in a card calling task. The members of Group II and Group III received these same suggestions and were also promised a reward of $100 for particularly high scores. For Group II, the stipulation was made that the $100 reward had to be used for selfish purposes; Group III received the stipulation that the money had to be used altruistically. The Group I treatment resulted in a significantly positive increase in scoring from the waking sessions to the hypnosis sessions; the treatment for Group II (the selfishly motivated subjects) was without effect; and the Group III treatment (altruistically motivated subjects) gave a significant drop in scoring between the two sessions. Implications for two theoretical explanations of the hypnosis psi relationship are discussed.

Journal of Parapsychology

Psychokinesis in aggressive and nonaggressive fish with mirror presentation feedback for hits: Some preliminary experiments

Authors: Braud W. Journal: Journal of Parapsychology Publication date: 1976 Keywords: aggression; fish; psychokinesis; theoretical study

Four experiments involved a new procedure for testing psychokinesis in animals. A total of 34 aggressive tropical fish were given a 20-sec mirror presentation (a positive reinforcer for these animals) as a feedback stimulus for hits on a Schmidt random event generator. The performance of these Ss was compared with that of 34 nonaggressive fish (for which the mirror was not reinforcing) and with the hit rate of the random generator during randomness tests conducted without the presence of fish in the apparatus. In Exps I (pilot) and II (1st confirmation), 100 trials were run on each of 4 days, with an intertrial interval of 20 sec. In Exps III and IV (2nd and 3rd confirmations), Ss were tested on only 1 day. In Exps I and II, the aggressive Ss exhibited psi-hitting on Day 1 only. There was a decline effect over the 4 test days. The aggressive Ss of Exp IV exhibited psi-hitting on their sole day of testing. The aggressive Ss of Exp III exhibited chance performance. The performance of the nonaggressive Ss in each of the 4 experiments and the scores of the random generator on randomness trials never differed from chance expectation. Collapsing across experiments and combining all Day 1 scores (Day 1 procedures were identical for all) yielded significant psi-hitting for aggressive Ss, chance performance for the nonaggressive Ss, and a difference closely approaching significance between aggressive and nonaggressive Ss).

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