European Journal of Parapsychology

European Journal of Parapsychology

Вопрос методологии в изучении корреляции между психофизиологическими параметрами

Авторы: Edwin C. May, S. James P. Spottiswoode, Laura V. Faith Журнал: European Journal of Parapsychology Год издания: 2010 Ключевые слова: методология, вопрос правильного метода, адекватные методы, изучение кореляции, психофизиология

We used previously accumulated skin conductance (SC) and EEG data to examine the effects of their respective autocorrelations upon hypothesis testing. We found that SC data remain auto-correlated for many seconds, and that EEG data remain auto-correlated for many fractions of a second depending upon filtering parameters. We show that the effect of these non-zero autocorrelations upon the interpretation of correlation coefficients using normal statistics can lead to substantially inflated significance levels. We demonstrate that standard Monte Carlo techniques can provide valid estimates of the significance levels. We critically review a paper claiming significant correlation between the EEG’s of isolated participants Grinberg-Zylberbaum, Delaflor, Attie, and Goswami (1994);
however, using uncorrelated EEG data from one of our previous studies and Monte Carlo methods to model the true null hypothesis, we compute a non-significant difference (Z = 1.22) between their non-“correlated” participants and their “correlated” ones in contrast with their claims of significance.

European Journal of Parapsychology

Исследование связи между ночными галлюцинациями и личностными характеристиками

Авторы: Alejandro Parra & Luis Espinoza Paul Журнал: European Journal of Parapsychology Год издания: 2009 Ключевые слова: галлюцинации, сновидения, человеческий фактор, поиск связи, особенности личности

A number of studies have demonstrated high prevalence rates of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations in the general population, such as sensations of floating, seeing lights, hearing noises, being called, and being touched. There are a number of well documented cases of ESP and crisis apparitions that have also occurred during the hypnagogic/hypnopompic states, such as forms of ESP, telepathy, and out-of-body experiences. Other formal links between paranormal or anomalous experiences may be seen in the positive relationship consistently found between HG/HP and dissociational/absorption experiences and fantasy proneness, which correlated significantly higher on schizotypy and perceptual aberration, without suffering from the more unpleasant symptoms. Participants who have HG/HP experiences have a higher capacity for (1) schizotypy proneness and cognitive-perceptual schizotypy, and (2) dissociation, absorption, and fantasy proneness than nonexperients.
A total of 648 undergraduate psychology students from Argentina and 214 from Peru were tested. The results suggest that absorption and cognitive-perceptual aspects of schizotypy, in particular, are essential features of persons with HG/HP experiences. The results, which suggest that persons who experience HG/HP are likely to have a rich imaginal life, are consistent with other studies that have found measures of absorption to be successful predictors of psychic phenomena.

European Journal of Parapsychology

Ощущение взгляда на себе: парапсихологическая классика с подтяжкой лица

Авторы: Susanne Müller, Stefan Schmidt, Harald Walach Журнал: European Journal of Parapsychology Год издания: 2009 Ключевые слова: экстрасенсорика, доказательная база, взгляд, ощущение взгляда

Findings in parapsychology suggest an effect of distant intentionality related to remote staring. Previously, either the covariation of a distant gaze with the electrodermal activity (EDA) of the person being observed (staree) or with the person’s conscious guesses are measured. We combined these two strands of research. Thereby we allowed for the starees at any time to indicate whether they felt being stared at or not. We distracted the starers by a demanding mental task in half of the sessions or we instructed them to keep their minds busy with anything but the staree. Overall 50 sessions were conducted. The experiment failed to demonstrate a clear cut effect. The difference between the staring and non-staring conditions was not significant. For the comparison of distraction
and standard procedures we found no significant differences for EDA or conscious report. However in a post hoc analysis one of the conscious report variables approached significance for the interaction between staring and distraction in the predicted direction. The effect size of the staring effect in this condition was d = 0.57. We conclude that the starer’s mental strategy during the non-staring periods may be important.

European Journal of Parapsychology

Исследование явления предчувствия во сне (вещие сны)

Авторы: Eric Robinson Журнал: European Journal of Parapsychology Год издания: 2009 Ключевые слова: предчувствие, вещие сны, предвидение, виды экстрасенсорной перцепции, анализ

This paper reports a covert experimental investigation of dream precognition. 100 participants attended two laboratory sessions under the guise of a dreaming and personality study. In the first session, a questionnaire measuring variables previously suggested to predict experimental psi performance; dream recall (Sherwood &
Roe, 2003) and Novelty Seeking (Bem, 2008) was completed. Participants were also instructed to keep a dream diary the night of session one. In session two (the following day) using their dream diary, participants were presented with two texts of scene descriptions and asked to rate which possessed the strongest similarities to the content of their dreams. The two texts actually described two video clips, one of which was then randomly selected
and viewed by the participant (the ‘target’ video clip). If dreaming could be retro-causally influenced by future experiences, it was hypothesised participants would show a preference towards selecting the text describing the target video. Overall, no significant effect was observed. However, a significant relationship between rated degree of similarity (of dreaming and video description) and performance was observed and dream recall was also found to significantly predict performance. Novelty Seeking did not predict performance. Methodological issues of this approach are also discussed.

European Journal of Parapsychology

Личность, ментальное состояние и процедура воспроизведения экстрасенсорики в экспериментальных условиях: логистический регрессионный анализ условий успешных экспериментов

Авторы: José M. Pérez-Navarro, Tony Lawrence, Ian Hume Журнал: European Journal of Parapsychology Год издания: 2009 Ключевые слова: экстрасенсорика, доказательная база, существует ли пси, статистический анализ, подтверждение

Despite many years of research, evidence in support of ESP (extrasensory perception) remains controversial, mainly, due to the difficulty in replicating positive results across studies. This study explores a series of variables as predictors of study success. Ninety participants replicated an experimental condition, based on the use of Ganzfeld and multi-sensory stimuli, which had produced significant results in a previous study. These participants achieved a significant hit rate of 33.3% (z=1.86, p=.031, one tailed). Variables psychoticism, pre-session tense arousal, anger and frustration, empathy, feeling upset, discomfort, and concern about the external environment during the Ganzfeld correlated positively with the participants’ performance (p<.05). Conversely, variables
internal awareness, vulnerability, feeling vigorous, and senderreceiver intimate bonds showed negative associations. A logistic regression analysis of these predictors showed a four-variable equation that predicted correctly 79.55% of the cases. We concluded that the use of Ganzfeld and multi-sensory targets in the experimental testing of ESP is worth further exploration.

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