Связь между ожиданиями экспериментатора и результатами экстрасенсорных тестов

Авторы: Taddonio J.L. Журнал: Journal of Parapsychology Год издания: 1976 Ключевые слова: ожидания, результативность, экстрасенсорные тесты, влияние ожиданий
Journal of Parapsychology

An experiment was conducted to investigate whether or not an experimenter’s expectancy could be manipulated toward a desired end goal of positive or negative ESP scoring by subjects. A total of six college students acted as experimenters, two in a pilot and four in a confirmatory series. Each experimenter administered a clairvoyance test to a group of 20 subjects. The test consisted of one run of 24 trials, and high frequency words were used as targets. Half of the experimenters were told that the test was highly psi conducive and that they could expect positive scoring from their subjects. The other experimenters were told that the test consistently elicited psi missing and that they could expect only negative scoring. Marginally significant results in the pilot supported the hypothesis that an experimenter’s expectancy can influence the direction of subjects’ ESP scores. In the confirmatory experiment, as predicted, the subjects tested by the experimenters who expected psi hitting scored significantly above chance (p<.01), while those tested by the experimenters who expected psi missing scored significantly below chance (p<.01). A significant difference was found between the two experimenter expectancy groups in both series (p<.01) for the pilot and p<.001 for the confirmation).

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