25.04.2019

Две стороны меча скептицизма: бритва Оккама и лоботомия Оккама

Авторы: Bauer H.H. Журнал: Journal of Scientific Exploration Год издания: 2006 Ключевые слова: скептицизм, неверие, опровержения, бритва Оккама, экономия мышления, лоботомия Оккама
Journal of Scientific Exploration

Skepticism views the probability of a proposition as always less than 1, whereas belief or disbelief are absolute, asserting that the probability equals 1 or 0. The proper spirit of skepticism is constructive: it seeks to improve knowledge by stimulating better estimates of probability. That means micro-skepticism, questioning the soundness of every detail of fact, method, logic; it is empirical. By contrast, macro-skepticism is deductive; it relies on current scientific knowledge, which makes it backward-looking and destructively critical rather than
constructively critical. It appeals commonly to Occam’s Razor: it is always «simplest» to explain things in the way we are used to doing. But knowledge advances through change; so the Razor becomes a Lobotomy as people forget
Einstein’s insistence that theories should be as simple as possible, but no simpler. Strong skepticism about new claims safeguards science against error. But the failure to maintain skepticism after a theory has been incorporated fosters dogmatism. There are a mounting number of contemporary examples where the native conservatism and dogmatism of science have become tyranniesknowledge monopolies and research cartels-because science has become so much governed by official bureaucracies.

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